Aluminum and Silicic Acid Fact Sheet

– Despite being the third most common element in the earth’s crust after oxygen and silicon, aluminum has never been part of biology.

– Aluminum is essentially toxic to all forms of life.

– The evolution of life and human beings began in the absence of biologically available aluminum.[i]

– Any amount of aluminum found in living organisms should be considered abnormal and toxic.

– As the content of aluminum in a body of water rises due to erosion of the soil from acid rain, the aquatic environment becomes inhospitable to life.

– The death of fish[ii] and dieback of trees in Western Europe and North America due to acid rain seem to be primarily realted to aluminum toxicity.[iii]

– Aside from acid rain, aluminum has become progressively ubiquitous in our environment since we entered the aluminum age in 1855 when it began to be produced industrially.

– It is added to many chemicals, municipal waters, cosmetics, aerosols, foods (e.g., infant formulas, processed cheese for grilled cheese, baking powder, most processed foods, food coloring, i.e., in candies), drugs (e.g., antacids, in immunotherapy as an immunogen, for its color in Aricept, or as a buffering agent in buffered medications such as buffered aspirin), antiperspirants (as much as 2 g of aluminum are applied to the skin with every application), aftershaves, hair spray, air pollution, vaccines, tobacco, cannabis, etc.

– Throughout the world, alum (aluminum sulfate) is used in municipal water treatment plants to clarify water. Simulated water was fed once to laboratory animals and the radioactive soluble aluminum was traced right to their brain.[iv]

– It is interesting to note that as a rule the aluminum content of foods in aluminum packaging (beverages, cakes and various ready-to-serve meals) are so small that one must draw the conclusion that migration of aluminum from the packaging into the food can be ignored,[v] unless a package/can is not lined or has been dented, which could increase aluminum leaching into the food by one hundred fold, and acidic beverages such as apple juice and mineral water or tea should not be used in aluminum drinking bottles, which is particularly important for children. Tests show that the total weekly intake of aluminum reaches (87%) or exceeds (145%) for a child weighing 15 kg drinking 500 mL respectively of apple juice or mineral water, or brewed tea from an unlined aluminum bottle. On the other hand, migration of aluminum from lined bottles is much less. The specific release limit of 5.00 mg/kg or 5.00 mg/L of food or liquid is not exceeded by any of the lined bottles tested. Unlined bottles, in contrast, did exceed these limits when carrying acidic beverages.[vi]

– Preparation of a dish with an aqueous solution of 0.5% citric acid in aluminum cookware would exceed the tolerable leaching limit of aluminum into the 
food by 128 times, and one such serving would exceed by 300% the total weekly intake of aluminum for a child weighing 15 kg.

– Preparation of food with lemon juice in an aluminum dish would exceed the weekly intake of aluminum by 871% for a child weighing 15 kg and by 187% for an adult weighing 70 kg with a daily intake of such food.[vii]

– An aluminum-adjuvanted vaccine is essentially a very high concentration of aluminum.

– For instance, GlaxoSmithKline’s Infanrix Hexa vaccine, the hepatitis B vaccine that is recommended to be given within 24 hours of birth of an infant, is reported by the manufacturer to contain 0.82 mg of aluminum per vaccine (0.5 mL). Thus, the weight of aluminum salt in this vaccine is approximately 8 mg, which is approximately ten times the weight of all of the other components of the vaccine combined. It is equivalent to 25 times the daily dose of aluminum received from the most contaminated of infant formulas.

– By following the US CDC vaccine-schedule, a six-month old baby would receive 23 vaccines for a total of 5.38 mg of aluminum or 53.8 mg of aluminum salts.

– The concentration of systemically available aluminum immediately present at the injection site of a vaccine is very high, which essentially corresponds to an acute exposure to aluminum and results in significant cytotoxicity including necrotic cell death.

– The concentration of aluminum at the injection site of the Heaptitis B vaccine is approximately 60 mmol/L.[viii]

– Research has demonstrated significant genotoxicity in lymphocytes locally exposed to only 0.020 mmol/L of total aluminum and significant immunosuppression of both T and B-lymphocytes at 0.6 mmol/L total aluminum.

– Macrophages, a characteristically robust cell, are susceptible to aluminum toxicity demonstrating 50% cell death at a total aluminum concentration of 10 mmol/L.

– Aluminum accumulates in the body and especially in long-living cells, such as neurons.

– Aluminum is neurotoxic. Neuroblastoma cell viability is reduced by 50% with less than 1 mmol/L total aluminum and similarly for primary hippocampal neurons exposed to only 0.05 mmol/L total aluminum.

– Aluminum is known to have significant pro-oxidant activity at concentrations of aluminum that are commonly found throughout the body.[ix]

– Aluminum has also been found to be an endocrine disruptor.[x]

– Human exposure to aluminum has been heavily linked to inflammatory cascades in a wide range of diseases, including encephalopathy (such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and autism), autoimmune diseases (ASIA (autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (which is mostly aluminum)), thyroiditis), bone diseases (osteoporosis and exostosis)[xi] and cancer.

– Aluminum free ion, Al3+(aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry, e.g., dialysis encephalopathy or encephalopathy associated with acute aluminum poisoning.

 – Brains of people who have died with Alzheimer’s disease have 4 to 30 times the amount of aluminum in their brain than their spouse who had no known brain disease.

– Studies have shown increased concentrations of aluminum in the substantia nigra of Parkinson’s disease patients compared to controls.[xii]

– Brains of young autistic persons contain as much aluminum as the brains of much older persons who have died of Alzheimer’s disease.

– Autism in children was first described in 1943 by Leon Kanner. He had seen since 1938 eleven children with the characteristic behavior of autism. All these children were born after 1931 when the highly toxic ethyl mercury (thimerosal) was added to vaccines and after 1933 when aluminum adjuvants started to be generally used in vaccines.

– Leon Kanner reported that his cases of autism in children were a first in psychiatry. It is noteworthy that he is known as the father of child psychiatry and had written in 1934 the first textbook in English on the subject, Child Psychiatry, with of course no report on the existence of autism in children.

– Sigma, the company that sells thimerosal, indicates in its hazard statement of this product that it is fatal if ingested, in contact with the skin or inhaled, and can cause damage to organs.[xiii]

– It is interesting to note that one year after Kanner’s publication, Hans Asperger, an Austrian pediatrician, reported four children with autism, a first in Europe. It took another eighteen years, that is in 1961, before other cases of autism were reported in Europe, and this time by D. Arn Van Krevelen in Holland.[xiv]

– In a review of the literature from 2011 to 2016 on ASIA, 4,479 cases were identified, of which 305 fulfilled arbitrary criteria of severe ASIA, or 7%, including 11 deaths.[xv]

– Autoimmune phenomena such as arthralgia, myalgia, myocarditis, pericarditis, as well as diseases of unclear etiology such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and the Gulf War Illness (GWI), occur in higher frequencies after vaccine administration. Additionally, well-defined autoimmune diseases, for instance immune-mediated myopathies, SLE, RA, Sjögren’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and inflammatory bowel diseases, have all been linked to various vaccines exposure. The most common vaccines to be related to ASIA syndrome are those directed to the influenza virus, HPV, HBV, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, MMR and BCG.[xvi]

– Animal model research has found that the quantities of vaccine aluminum adjuvants received by the US Armed Forces personal from just the anthrax vaccine could be the culprit of some of the neurological features associated with GWI.[xvii]

– Mice used in this animal model showed a progressive and significant decrease in muscular strength and endurance by 50% six months after the injection of a weight equivalent aluminum dose. They also showed a significant increase (138%) in anxiety levels at week 14.

– It is interesting to note that non-deployed but vaccinated US troops developed GWI symptoms identical to those who were deployed.

– Veterans of the Persian Gulf War were twice more likely to develop ALS than the civilian population.

– High concentrations of aluminum have been found in human semen (suggesting possible implications for spermatogenesis and sperm count),[xviii] amniotic fluid and placenta.

– Aluminum inhibits bone mineralization; the greater the aluminum exposure, the higher the risk of an early fracture.[xix]

– The inadvertent use of aluminum-contaminated water in the dialysis of renal failure patients increased plasma aluminum levels and resulted in a serious bone disorder (dialysis osteomalacia) in which aluminum accumulates at the growth front of bone together with anemia and cognitive impairment.[xx]

– Patients with senile dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease) have a 7-12 times greater risks of hip fracture than the general population.

-During these last 5 decades, the age-specific incidence for hip fracture has increased epidemically, so as senile dementia.

– Aluminum has been known for a long time to be a mutagen.

– Feline vaccine-associated sarcomas have been directly related to aluminum in vaccines.[xxi]

– Despite the fact that aluminum is now known to be toxic there is no legislation whatsoever limiting human exposure to aluminum.[xxii]

– There has been and there continues to be systematic attempts by the aluminum industry to suppress research on aluminum and human health.[xxiii]

– Aluminum in the urine is a good measure of the body’s burden of aluminum (urine aluminum test costs $49 Canadian).

– Patients with multiple sclerosis have much more aluminum in their urine than matched controls.

– Most of the aluminum absorbed into the blood stream is eliminated in the urine and in the sweat and the rest will be transported and stored especially in leucocytes and neuronal and bone tissues.[xxiv]

– Silicic acid or orthosilicic acid—Si(OH)4 is a natural molecule found in the soil and in water.

– Silicic acid is pervasive like H2O throughout living tissues (plants and animals).

– Silicic acid is freely diffusible across cell walls and membranes and, in most cell types of most organisms, the intracellular concentration of silicic acid equilibrates with the extracellular environment.

– Silicic acid is known to bind to only two molecules in nature: 1) with itself—becoming silica or sand (quartz)—SiO2 at concentrations above 100-120 ppm; and 2) with aluminum.

– It seems that one of the most important roles in nature of silicic acid is greatly to keep aluminum out of biological systems.

– When silicic acid is added to the waters in which fishes are dying following acid rain, it will permit them to survive without affecting the pH of the water by simply neutralizing aluminum,[xxv] and silicic acid is found bound to aluminum in the needles of conifers that survive acid rain.[xxvi]

– Silica is considered to be essential in higher animals yet, as is the case for the other essential trace elements, no fundamental biochemical function has ever been defined and no stable organic binding (via Si-C or Si-0-C) has been demonstrated for it.[xxvii]

– Not a single biological organic molecule has been found to either contain or require silicon,[xxviii] but has been found to be beneficial to most if not all living things.[xxix]

– Silicon in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts promotes bone and connective tissue health, may have a modulating effect on the immune or inflammatory response, and has been associated with improvement in mental health and decreasing the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease through its capacity to eliminate aluminium from the body.[xxx]

– However, a silicon deficient diet in laboratory animals results in defective collagenous connective tissue formation (i.e. in articular cartilage) and defects in the growth of bone.

– Silicon can be found in nearly all organs and tissues, with the highest concentrations in connective and hard tissues, including bones. Further analysis revealed silicon localized within osteoblasts, possibly within mitochondria and other intracellular organelles.[xxxi]

– Silicic acid has significant effects on the molecular biology of osteoblasts in vitro, regulating the expression of several genes including key osteoblastic markers, cell cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins. [xxxii]

– Also, growth is very significantly retarded (25- 40%) in animals fed a silicon deficient diet and restored upon the addition of silicon to the diet—up to 500 mg silicate per kg.

– Silicon can exert influence over the metabolism of different organs or during inflammatory processes indirectly by altering the absorption and utilization of other trace elements.[xxxiii]

– Silicon supplementation in the diet has showed stimulatory effects on cartilage synthesis and increased bone density.[xxxiv]

– Silicon is clearly involved in collagen biosynthesis, despite the fact that no organic bond has ever been found.

– However, silicon can be found in high levels in the extracellular matrix bound to different components, especially glycosaminoglycans, which are highly polar and attract water, and are therefore useful to the body as a lubricant or as a shock absorber.[xxxv]

– Horsetail plants grown in a soil that is depleted of silicic acid succomb to fungal infection after 10 weeks. The same plants grown in soil repleted with silicic acid accumulated silica throughout their tissues and especially in the epidermis of the outer side of their leaf and furrow region of the stem where it was continuous and often, as a double layer suggestive of a physical barrier against the invasion of pathogens, e.g. fungi.[xxxvi]

– Numerous studies correlate silicic acid uptake with enhanced tolerance of plants to various biotic (e.g., microorganims) and abiotic stress, including heavy metal toxicity, but the mechanisms of silicon (Si) function still remain elusive.[xxxvii]

– However, it is known that silicon can induced an increase in plant antioxidant enzymatic defense and its capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species, and influence the synthesis of endogenous phytohormones, which results in improved growth.[xxxviii]

– Oral intake of 10 mg per day of silicic acid (the equivalent of about 3 ounces of Fiji water) increased the elasticity and esthetic appearance of facial skin in older women with UV-damaged skin and in the brittleness of hair and nails in a randomized double-blinded clinical study.[xxxix]

– Two patients have reported that that their hair began returning to the original color after drinking Fiji water. One patient of 57 reported that her hair started to turned gray by the age of 18 and mostly white by the age of 42, but was 95% gray before drinking the Fiji water. Within six months of drinking two glasses a day, 60% of her hair had regained its original black color. Her husband of 61 began to drink the Fiji water at the same time. He had been completely white since the age of about 30. 40% of his hair had now retuned to their original color. Both of them the hair began to regaine their original color beginning at the margin of the hair progressing like a halo toward the top of the head.

The other patient who reported a change of color her hair return to her original orange color after so many weeks.

– Microscopic marine plankton such as radiolaria concentrate silicic acid via specialized membrane-bound compartments and silicon transporter proteins to create complex silica frustules, as these: [xl]

 – One idea seems to be clear to scientists: without silicic acid there would be no life on earth.

– The presence of silicic acid in the drinking water reduced the absorption and the aluminum concentration in plants and in the plasma and in soft tissues of animals, thus completely inhibiting very high aluminum deposition in bone and neural tissues.

– Spring water rich in silicic acid binds with aluminum in living organisms, which facilitates its excretion.

– Humans have a Bell-curve capacity to get rid of aluminum, which explains why in a couple only one of the partners develops Alzheimer’s or aluminum encephalopathy following an environmental exposure to aluminum.

– Spring water rich in silicic acid that can be found on the market are Fiji water (95 ppm), Spritzer water from Maylaisia (46 ppm), Volvic water (36 ppm), Vichy water (36 ppm) and Badoit water (33 ppm).[xli]

– Beers contain about 19 ppm of silicic acid, which is considered the major source, with bananas and green beans,[xlii] of silicic acid in the western diet.[xliii] However, a plant-based diet increases the overall intake of silicic acid.[xliv]

– Regions in the world, like regions of France, where the water is rich in silicic acid, have been found to have lower incidence of Alzheimer’s disease.

– When Alzheimer’s disease patients were asked to drink 1-1.5 liter daily of Volvic water, the amount of aluminum increased in the urine by up to 8-fold.

– After a period of 12 weeks of drinking 1-1.5 liter daily of Volvic water, 20% of the Alzheimer’s disease patients showed clinically significant improvements in cognitive performance and the disease seems to have stopped progressing in another 33% of the patients.[xlv]

– Aluminum in the blood is tightly bound to transferrin, and silicic acid is too weak a binder to compete for the aluminum bound with transferrin.

– What most probably occurs is that silicic acid prevents aluminum reabsorption in the kidney.

– When the concentration of silicic acid in the tubular fluid is raised following the consumption of a silicic acid-rich drink, hydroxyaluminosilicates are then formed in the tubular fluid and are not reabsorbed so that excretion of aluminum is transiently increased.

– In inhibiting absorption and enhancing excretion, silicon is clearly involved in aluminum homeostasis in humans and is thus a dietary factor influencing accumulation.

– The growth-promoting effects of silicic acid in growing animals are thought not to be due to a positive effect but to its indirect effect on the bioavailability of essential (iron, manganese, phosphates, copper and zinc) and toxic elements (aluminum).

– For instance, silicic acid increases growth by its capacity to mobilize phosphate and reduce aluminum accumulation.

– It is now clear that silicic acid interacts with metals, essential and toxic ones, and influences their biological availability, uptake, utilization, distribution and rejection.

– It is significant to life that silicic acid increases the availability of iron (in plants and in animals) and reduces that of aluminum.

– Silicic acid increases ceruloplasmin activity, the plasma protein that binds copper tightly, which increases elastin content in the aorta and connective tissues. Animal studies have shown that silicon is a candidate for protecting atherosclerosis, especially related to age.[xlvi]

– Silicic acid increases tissue content of collagen, which provides support and structure to the body, particularly the skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles, and bones.

– A study on the prevention of osteoporosis showed that ovariectomized animals fed with high quantities of sodium metasilicate gained 4% and 5% of bone weight in their vertebrae and femurs respectfully while animals in the control group lost 14% and 7% of bone weight in their vertebrae and femurs respectfully.[xlvii]

– In another similar study, total lumbar bone mineral density was marginally increased and femoral bone loss was prevented in the aged ovariectomized animal model when they were supplemented with silicic acid.[xlviii]

– Supplementation with only 28 mg/day of silicic acid (the equivalence of about one glass of Fiji water) for 12 weeks increased spine bone mineral density by 2.5% in six postmenopausal women with low bone mass.[xlix] – See Professor Chris Exley’s fact sheet on silicic acid


[i] Exley, Christopher. “Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease.” Frontiers in neurology 5 (2014): 212.

[ii] Birchall, J. D., et al. “Acute toxicity of aluminium to fish eliminated in silicon-rich acid waters.” Nature 338.6211 (1989): 146.

[iii] Hodson, M. J., and A. G. Sangster. “Aluminum/silicon interactions in conifers.” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 76.2 (1999): 89-98.

[iv] Walton, Judie, et al. “Uptake of trace amounts of aluminum into the brain from drinking water.” Neurotoxicology 16.1 (1995): 187-190.

[v] Stahl, Thorsten, Hasan Taschan, and Hubertus Brunn. “Aluminum content of selected foods and food products.” Environmental Sciences Europe 23.1 (2011): 37.

[vi] Stahl, Thorsten, et al. “Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part II of III: migration of aluminum from drinking bottles and moka pots made of aluminum to beverages.” Environmental Sciences Europe 29.1 (2017): 18.

[vii] Stahl, Thorsten, et al. “Migration of aluminum from food contact materials to food—a health risk for consumers? Part III of III: migration of aluminum to food from camping dishes and utensils made of aluminum.” Environmental Sciences Europe 29.1 (2017): 17.

[viii] Exley, Christopher. “An aluminum adjuvant in a vaccine is an acute exposure to aluminum.” Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology: organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) 57 (2019): 57.

[ix] Christopher Exley,. “Human exposure to aluminum.” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 15.10 (2013): 1807-1816.

[x] Stahl, Thorsten, Hasan Taschan, and Hubertus Brunn. “Aluminum content of selected foods and food products.” Environmental Sciences Europe 23.1 (2011): 37.

[xi] Chappard, Daniel, et al. “Aluminum and bone: Review of new clinical circumstances associated with Al3+ deposition in the calcified matrix of bone.” Morphologie 100.329 (2016): 95-105.

[xii] Altschuler, E. “Aluminum-containing antacids as a cause of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease.” Medical hypotheses 53.1 (1999): 22-23.

[xiii] https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/t5125?lang=en&region=CA

[xiv] D. Arn Van Krevelen. Early infantile autism and autistic psychopathy. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 1971; 1 (1): 82-86.

[xv] Luis J. Jara, et al. Severe manifestations of autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome). Immunologic Research 2017; 65 (1): 8-16

[xvi] A. Watad, et al. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome)–An update. Lupus 2017; 26 (7): 675-681.

[xvii] Petrik, Michael S., et al. “Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice.” NeuroMolecular Medicine 9.1 (2007): 83-100.

[xviii] Klein, J. P., et al. “Aluminum content of human semen: Implications for semen quality.” Reproductive Toxicology 50 (2014): 43-48.

[xix] Mjöberg, Bengt, et al. “Aluminum, Alzheimer’s disease and bone fragility.” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 68.6 (1997): 511-514.

[xx] Birchall, J. D. “The essentiality of silicon in biology.” Chemical Society Reviews 24.5 (1995): 351-357.

[xxi] McEntee, Margaret C., and Rodney L. Page. “Feline vaccine‐associated sarcomas.” Journal of veterinary internal medicine 15.3 (2001): 176-182.

[xxii] Christopher Exley. “Human exposure to aluminum.” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 15.10 (2013): 1807-1816.

[xxiii] Exley, Christopher. “Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease.” Frontiers in neurology 5 (2014): 212.

[xxiv] Minshall, Clare, Jodie Nadal, and Christopher Exley. “Aluminum in human sweat.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 28.1 (2014): 87-88.

[xxv] Birchall, J. D., et al. “Acute toxicity of aluminium to fish eliminated in silicon-rich acid waters.” Nature 338.6211 (1989): 146.

[xxvi] Hodson, M. J., and A. G. Sangster. “Aluminum/silicon interactions in conifers.” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 76.2 (1999): 89-98.

[xxvii] Birchall, J. D. “The essentiality of silicon in biology.” Chemical Society Reviews 24.5 (1995): 351-357.

[xxviii] Exley, Christopher. “Silicon in life: a bioinorganic solution to bioorganic essentiality.” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 69.3 (1998): 139-144.

[xxix] Christopher Exley, Gea Guerriero, Xabier Lopez. Silicic acid: The omniscient molecule. Science of The Total Environment 2019; 665: 432-437.

[xxx] Nielsen, Forrest H. “Update on the possible nutritional importance of silicon.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 28.4 (2014): 379-382.

[xxxi] Henstock, J. R., L. T. Canham, and S. I. Anderson. “Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.” Acta biomaterialia 11 (2015): 17-26.

[xxxii] Henstock, J. R., L. T. Canham, and S. I. Anderson. “Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.” Acta biomaterialia 11 (2015): 17-26.

[xxxiii] Nielsen, Forrest H. “Update on the possible nutritional importance of silicon.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 28.4 (2014): 379-382.

[xxxiv] Nielsen, Forrest H. “Update on the possible nutritional importance of silicon.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 28.4 (2014): 379-382.

[xxxv] Nielsen, Forrest H. “Update on the possible nutritional importance of silicon.” Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 28.4 (2014): 379-382.

[xxxvi] Gea Guerriero, et al. Rough and tough. How does silicic acid protect horsetail from fungal infection? Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2018; 47: 45-52.

[xxxvii] Marie Luyckx, et al. Impact of heavy metals on non-food herbaceous crops and prophylactic role of Si. Plant Metallomics and Functional Omics. Springer, Cham, 2019. 303-321.

[xxxviii] Marie Luyckx, et al. Impact of heavy metals on non-food herbaceous crops and prophylactic role of Si. Plant Metallomics and Functional Omics. Springer, Cham, 2019. 303-321.

[xxxix] Barel, A., et al. “Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin.” Archives of Dermatological Research 297.4 (2005): 147-153.

[xl] Henstock, J. R., L. T. Canham, and S. I. Anderson. “Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.” Acta biomaterialia 11 (2015): 17-26.

[xli] Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie, et al. “Cognitive impairment and composition of drinking water in women: findings of the EPIDOS Study.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 81.4 (2005): 897-902.

[xlii] Supannee Sripanyakorn, et al. The comparative absorption of silicon from different foods and food supplements. British Journal of Nutrition 2009; 102 (6): 825-834.

[xliii] Henstock, J. R., L. T. Canham, and S. I. Anderson. “Silicon: the evolution of its use in biomaterials.” Acta biomaterialia 11 (2015): 17-26.

[xliv] Götz, Werner, et al. “Effects of silicon compounds on biomineralization, osteogenesis, and hard tissue formation.” Pharmaceutics 11.3 (2019): 117.

[xlv] Davenward, Samantha, et al. “Silicon-rich mineral water as a non-invasive test of the ‘aluminum hypothesis’ in Alzheimer’s disease.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 33.2 (2013): 423-430.

[xlvi] Götz, Werner, et al. “Effects of silicon compounds on biomineralization, osteogenesis, and hard tissue formation.” Pharmaceutics 11.3 (2019): 117.

[xlvii] Rico, H., et al. “Effect of silicon supplement on osteopenia induced by ovariectomy in rats.” Calcified Tissue International 66.1 (2000): 53-55.

[xlviii] Calomme, M., et al. “Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid.” Calcified tissue international 78.4 (2006): 227-232.

[xlix] Jugdaohsingh, Ravin. “Silicon and bone health.” The journal of nutrition, health & aging 11.2 (2007): 99.

André Saine, N.D., F.C.A.H.

André Saine, N.D., F.C.A.H.

André Saine is a 1982 graduate of the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in Portland, Oregon. He is board-certified in homeopathy (1988) by the Homeopathic Academy of Naturopathic Physicians and has been teaching and lecturing on homeopathy since 1985. He is considered one of the world’s foremost experts on the subject of homeopathy.